Frances Hodgson Burnett
Born in Cheetham Hill, Manchester, England, on November 24, 1849, Frances Hodgson grew up in increasingly straitened circumstances after the death of her father in 1854. In 1865 the family emigrated to the United States and settled in New Market, near Knoxville, Tennessee, where the promise of support from a maternal uncle failed to materialize. In 1868 Hodgson managed to place a story with Godey's Lady's Book. Within a few years she was being published regularly in Godey's, Peterson's Ladies' Magazine, Scribner's Monthly, and Harper's. In 1873, after a year's visit to England, she married Dr. Swan Moses Burnett of New Market (divorced 1898).
Burnett's first novel, That Lass o' Lowrie's, which had been serialized in Scribner's, was published in 1877. Like her short stories, the book combined a remarkable gift for realistic detail in portraying scenes of working-class life--unusual in that day--with a plot consisting of the most romantic and improbable of turns. After moving with her husband to Washington, D.C., Burnett wrote the novels Haworth's (1879), Louisiana (1880), A Fair Barbarian (1881), and Through One Administration (1883), as well as a play, Esmeralda (1881), written with William Gillette.
In 1886 Burnett's most famous and successful book appeared. First serialized in St. Nicholas magazine, Little Lord Fauntleroy was intended as a children's book, but it had its greatest appeal to mothers. It established the main character's long curls (based on her son Vivian's) and velvet suit with lace collar (based on Oscar Wilde's attire) as a mother's model for small boys, who generally hated it. The book sold more than half a million copies, and Burnett's income was increased by her dramatized version, which quickly became a repertory standard on the order of Uncle Tom's Cabin. In 1888 she won a lawsuit in England over the dramatic rights to Little Lord Fauntleroy, establishing a precedent that was incorporated into British copyright law in 1911.
Her later books include Sara Crewe (1888), dramatized as The Little Princess (1905), and The Secret Garden (1909), both of which were also written for children. The Lady of Quality (1896) has been considered the best of her other plays. These, like most of her 40-odd novels, stress sentimental, romantic themes. In 1893 she published a memoir of her youth, The One I Knew Best of All. From the mid-1890s she lived mainly in England, but in 1909 she built a house in Plandome, Long Island, New York, where she died on October 29, 1924. Her son Vivian Burnett, the model for Little Lord Fauntleroy, wrote a biography of her in 1927 entitled The Romantick Lady.
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